How to keep secrets from the public: Don’t write anything down


New Brunswick Premier Blaine Higgs stood alone at the podium on the afternoon of July 15, when he introduced main adjustments to the province’s health-care management.

In the span of some minutes, Higgs dropped three bombshells: he shuffled out the province’s well being minister, fired the CEO of Horizon Health Network, and dismissed elected board members for each well being authorities, changing them with trustees.

It was a serious shakeup, and it was clear the resolution got here from the premier himself.

“This is not meant to be everlasting, however that is meant to get outcomes,” Higgs mentioned that day, referring to the two well being authority boards. “And proper now I want to see outcomes, and I need to take away the boundaries and the roadblocks for our well being professionals to obtain them.”

But when CBC News filed a proper to info request to the Office of the Premier, asking for information about the premier’s resolution to make adjustments to health-care management, a search returned no information — nothing to assist clarify to the public how Higgs arrived at such a major resolution.

It’s certainly one of a number of examples of cases the place the Higgs authorities failed to doc its work, one thing public servants in New Brunswick aren’t required to do by legislation.

The idea known as obligation to doc, and it is one thing transparency advocates have been calling for in Canada for years.

Keeping information of a authorities’s decision-making is at the core of excellent democracy, in accordance to Caroline Maynard, the federal info commissioner.

If the public cannot get info from authorities, they will flip to unreliable sources, in accordance to federal Information Commissioner Caroline Maynard. (Government of Canada)

“What we see is that if Canadians should not getting the info from our authorities or from dependable sources, they are going to then flip to unreliable sources,” Maynard mentioned.

“If our authorities desires their residents to believe in them, I believe that they want to present them with increasingly more info, in order that they will see for themselves what choices and actions are taken, and based mostly on what sorts of information and background info.”

When requested about the duty-to-document idea, Higgs mentioned he does not consider it is reasonable for him to write down particulars of all the discussions he has with folks.

“If I’m going again to the workplace now and I meet with a deputy minister in a sure division, I imply, we might speak about all the things … that can be simply each day routine,” he mentioned this week.

“But I’m not writing down each phrase they are saying or what they are saying.”

‘Verbal discussions,’ however no information

When requested about obligation to doc, a spokesperson for the New Brunswick authorities mentioned public workers have to “create and handle details about their group’s enterprise and actions in accordance with the New Brunswick Archives Act and different relevant laws.”

But New Brunswick hasn’t legislated an obligation to doc, nor was it a serious situation throughout the final overview of the province’s proper to info and safety of privateness legislation.

In some areas, it leaves few avenues for the public to perceive how choices are made.

Last 12 months, CBC obtained inner authorities emails associated to a controversial letter despatched by New Brunswick Natural Resources and Energy Development Minister Mike Holland.

CBC News obtained information detailing the course of behind a letter Natural Resources and Energy Development Mike Holland despatched to the Energy and Utilities Board, however they do not reveal how the situation got here to the authorities’s consideration in the first place. (CBC)

The letter was addressed to the Energy and Utilities Board, expressing help for Irving Oil’s utility to obtain an expedited listening to from the board into its request for greater petroleum margins.

Even although the letter had Holland’s title on it, inner authorities information confirmed the letter was written by a workforce of civil servants and despatched to the premier, relatively than Holland, to resolve whether or not to ship it.

But the few pages of information turned over by the authorities do not clarify how the situation got here to the authorities’s consideration in the first place.

CBC appealed to the New Brunswick ombud, the physique that handles complaints about proper to info requests in New Brunswick. The ombud’s workers discovered conversations occurred inside the authorities, however nobody appeared to write anything down, in accordance to a letter despatched to CBC earlier this 12 months.

“The division knowledgeable the investigator that verbal discussions did happen with regards to this matter however that these conversations weren’t documented or recorded,” the ombud’s letter says.

Because public our bodies aren’t required to create information documenting their work, the ombud’s workplace discovered the authorities did not commit an offence by not documenting the discussions.

Few information on resolution to oust high Mountie

Last 12 months, CBC requested for information associated to the authorities’s resolution to drive out the province’s high Mountie, Larry Tremblay.

The Department of Justice and Public Safety initially refused to present any information to CBC, arguing disclosure might “hurt relations” between the province and the federal authorities, and launched a number of pages solely after CBC appealed to the ombud.

But the information do not clarify how the authorities reached the conclusion that it not had confidence in the New Brunswick RCMP’s commanding officer.

Again, the ombud’s workplace discovered conversations occurred and nobody stored any information. A letter from the ombud’s workplace despatched to CBC final month particulars how senior officers concerned in the matter have been requested to search their very own information to discover related paperwork.

The New Brunswick authorities compelled out Larry Tremblay, the former high Mountie in the province, in 2021. (Ed Hunter/CBC)

“The division confirmed to this workplace that there have been phone conversations between senior administration with the division and federal officers to focus on this matter throughout the timeframe specified on this request, however said that it had no additional information documenting these cellphone calls, similar to emails requesting conferences, calendar invitations, digital assembly requests, and the like,” the ombud’s letter says.

When requested whether or not it is intentional to not all the time write issues down, Higgs mentioned he desires folks to “have the opportunity to speak brazenly and freely” about their concepts.

“Because any thought which may come out, you find yourself studying about it the subsequent day, which actually wasn’t a consideration or not a consideration,” Higgs mentioned.

“So I believe it is truthful to say there’s all the time that in the again of your thoughts if you’re having discussions, nevertheless it’s not an meant course of. It’s like many issues we do, by verbal dialogue. Many issues we do by simply speaking to each other in the division heads with completely different ministers and completely different folks in the course of.”

Pandemic exacerbated downside, commissioner says

Advocates like Jason Woywada describe conditions like this as “verbal authorities,” the place governments do not create information that could be topic to entry to info requests in the future.

“The reality {that a} premier or any member of cupboard or authorities is saying they decided based mostly on a cellphone name leads us to query, effectively, how do we all know that is the proper resolution?” Woywada mentioned. 

“Where is the written documentation that helps that? What is the info that was conveyed in that communication? That’s necessary.”

Woywada is the government director of the Freedom of Information and Privacy Association in British Columbia, a province that launched a duty-to-document legislation in 2017. 

But Woywada does not see the adjustments as assembly the necessities of an obligation to doc. He mentioned it might stop somebody from deleting info as soon as a proper to info request is filed, nevertheless it does not stop somebody from not making a document out of worry somebody would possibly file a request for it.

He’d like to see the onus inside governments shift towards how to doc choices correctly.

Working throughout a pandemic has exacerbated the downside, in accordance to the federal info commissioner. Whether persons are working from the workplace or residence, Maynard mentioned federal public servants ought to be discovering a approach to keep a document when choices are made.

But she additionally thinks it is a cultural downside, the place public servants resolve what they need the public to know.

“Ultimately, sadly, the finest laws that you may have is not going to remedy this situation if folks do not need a way of obligation that they’ve to make paperwork so that folks can entry them,” Maynard mentioned.


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